Lab Test Information And Results- GlobalTradersPlus Inc.™- Berkey® Water Filters

What Does The Berkey Water Filter Specifically Remove?

The Berkey Water Filter Systems are scientifically tested and proven. Berkey Water Filter have micro-filaments that can filter sediments and remove turbidity that are caused by chemicals and disease-causing microorganism such as bacteria and viruses. They turn your original source water into fresh, clean, and nutritious drinking water that you and your family will enjoy. The Berkey Water Element Filters can remove:

  • Fluoride – Removed to greater than 99.9%.
  • Pathogenic Bacteria – Removed to greater than 99.9%.
  • Chloramines – Removed to greater than 99.9%.
  • Pharmaceuticals – Removed to greater than 99.5%.
  • Petroleum Contaminants – Removed to greater than 99.9%.
  • Methylcycohexane-methane – Removed to greater than 99.9%.
  • Pesticides – Removed to greater than 99.9%.
  • Heavy Metals – Removed to greater than 99.1%.
  • Coliform and e-Coli – Removed to greater than 99.9%.
  • Atrazine – Removed to greater than 99.9%.
  • Lead – Removed to greater than 99.9%.
  • Arsenic – Removed to greater than 99.9%.
  • Iron – Removed to greater than 99.9%.
  • Mercury – Removed to greater than 99.9%.
  • Chlorine – Removed to greater than 99.9%.
  • Trihalomethane(THMs) – Removed to greater than 99.8%.
  • Bisphenol-A – Removed to greater than 99.9%.
  • Uranium – Removed to greater than 97.0%.
  • Gross Alpha emitters – Removed to greater than 98.7%.
  • Viruses – Removed to greater than 99.9%.

In order to be classified as a water purifier, a water treatment device must remove at least 99.9999% of pathogenic bacteria and reduce viruses by 99.99%. The Black Berkey Purification Element Filters can be classified as water purifiers because they remove 99.99999999999% of pathogenic bacteria and 99.99999% of viruses, which greatly exceeds the standard. The Black Berkey Purification Element formulation has been tested by State and EPA accredited laboratories to exceed NSF/ANSI Standard 53.

Pharmaceutical Drugs Contaminants -> Removed to >99.9%:

Acetaminophen; Caffeine; Carbamazepine; Ciprofloxacin HCl; Erythromycin USP; Sulfamethoxazole; Trimethoprim; Bisphenol A; Diclofenac Sodium; 4-para-Nonylphenol; 4-tert-Octylphenol; Primidone; Progestrone; Gemfibrozil; Ibuprofen; Naproxen Sodium; Triclosan.

Trihalomethanes -> Removed to >99.88%:

(Below Lab Detectable Limits):
Bromodichloromethane ; Bromoform ; Chloroform ; Dibromochloromethane.

Viruses -> Removed to >99.99999% (Log 5):

Exceeds Purification Standard (Log 4):
MS2 Coliphage ; Fr Coliphage.

Heavy Metals (HIGH & LOW pH LEVELS):

Berkey can remove other heavy metals such as Cadmium (>99.7%), Chromium 6 (>99.85%), Chromium (>99.9%), Copper (>99.9%), Cobalt (>95%), Mercury (>99.9%), Molybdenum (>90%), Bismuth (>99.9%), Beryllium (>99.9%), Barium (>80%), Zinc (>99.9%), Vanadium (>87.5%), Nickel (>99.9%), Aluminum (>99%), Antimony (>99.9%), Lead (>99.9%), and Iron (>99.9%) amongst others.

Inorganic Minerals, Pesticides, Petroleum, Pharmaceuticals, Semi-VOC’s, THM’s, VOC’s; reduction exceeded lab detection limits.

Inorganic Minerals:

Removed to Below Lab Detectable Limits: Chloramine; Chloride; Chlorine Residual (Total Residual Chlorine); Free Chlorine

Pathogenic Bacteria (and Surrogates) -> Removed to >99.999999999%:

Exceeds Purification Standard (Log 6): Bacillus atrophaeus (Anthrax surrogate); Raoultella terrigena (Pathogenic Bacteria Surrogate); Salmonella Enterica.

Also Reduces OR Removes:

Arsenic (>99.9%); Escherichia coli (E. Coli) (>99.999%); Fluorene (>99.9%); Manganese (>99.9%); MBAS (>96.67%); Nitrites (>95%); PCB’s (>99.9%); Petroleum Products (Gasoline, Diesel, Crude Oil, Kerosene, Mineral Spirits, Refined Oil- All >99.9%); Selenium (>99.9%); Thallium (>99.5%); Rust; Silt; Sediment; Turbidity; Foul Tastes and Odors.

Reference: NaturalNews.com

(NaturalNews) When it comes to the removal of heavy metals and toxic elements from water, Big Berkey water filters easily beat ProPur and other filters in the market. According to independent lab tests conducted at the Natural News Forensic Food Labs and published online today.

Big Berkey also best at removing elements with radioactive isotopes
In this scientific assessment, we tested for the ability of popular off-the-shelf water filters to remove heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury as well as elements that have radioactive isotopes such as strontium, cesium and uranium. Finally, we also tested for aluminum reduction due to the chemtrails concern among many consumers today.

Big Berkey was by far the best-performing gravity water filter we tested, achieving near-total removal of all toxic elements when used with the attached arsenic / fluoride filters (which attach underneath the black ceramic filters).

Product assembly was straightforward and simple, and all the parts in the unit worked reliably.

When it comes to reliable removal of toxic elements such as lead, cadmium, arsenic and even uranium, Big Berkey is the best performing gravity water filter available on the market today.

Reduction of elements by Big Berkey:

These ceramic filters are excellent at removing harmful bacteria from sediment heavy, contaminated drinking water. It soon became clear to Berkey that a more powerful filter was needed, one that not only removed bacteria but was also, in addition, able to remove chemicals, viruses, heavy metals, fertilizers and a long list of additional contaminants from your drinking water.
  • Aluminum: 86.6%
  • Copper: 100.0%
  • Arsenic: 100.0%
  • Strontium: 100.0%
  • Cadmium: 100.0%
  • Cesium: 98.6%
  • Mercury: 99.8%
  • Lead: 100.0%
  • Uranium: 100.0%

Many water filters on the market may claim to be a water purifier, but do not meet the performance specifications required for this classification. In order to be classified as a water purifier, a water treatment device must remove at least 99.9999% of pathogenic bacteria and reduce viruses by 99.99%.

The Berkey filters can be classified as water purifiers because they remove 99.9999999% of pathogenic bacteria and 99.999% of viruses, which greatly exceeds the standard. The filter formulation of Berkey systems (Black Berkey Purification Element) has been tested by State and EPA accredited laboratories to exceed NSF/ANSI Standard 53.

What is the difference between the Black Berkey purification filters and the white Ceramic filters?
Therefore, if the bladder tank is not sterilized on a regular basis, it becomes a source of bacteriological contamination that is never exposed to UV. Additionally, the carcasses of the dead bacteria remain within the drinking water with an RO system whereas they are removed by the Black Berkey filters.

Why do you need a Water Filter?

The water that comes directly from the faucet, the tap water, may already be damaging your health without you noticing it. Water is very important as it sustains life, you can survive without food for about 30 days, but can survive without water for only 1-3 days’ maximum.

Although the water is tested, and the Environmental Protection Agency stated that more than ninety percent of the water supply in the United States is actually safe to drink, they are not entirely free from impurities like chlorine, metals, ions, chemical, fluoride, and pesticides amongst the many.

The water that is flowing from the tap is not actually something that you would think as entirely clean. Before it reached the faucet in your home, it has already travelled through miles and miles of pipeline and it has picked lots of contaminants along the way. This is why you need to consider using a water filtration system to help you improve the water quality and for health purposes.

They Remove Lead

Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb and atomic number 82. It is a heavy metal with a density exceeding that of most common materials; it is soft, malleable, and melts at a relatively low temperature.

Lead can enter drinking water when service pipes that contain lead corrode, especially where the water has high acidity or low mineral content that corrodes pipes and fixtures. The most common problem is with brass or chrome-plated brass faucets and fixtures with lead solder, from which significant amounts of lead can enter into the water, especially hot water.

Homes built before 1986 are more likely to have lead pipes, fixtures and solder. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) has reduced the maximum allowable lead content — that is, content that is considered “lead-free” — to be a weighted average of 0.25 percent calculated across the wetted surfaces of pipes, pipe fittings, plumbing fittings, and fixtures and 0.2 percent for solder and flux.

Lead can be removed from the water when you let the water pass through a filter that uses a reverse osmosis mechanism, a carbon filter or distillation that was specifically designed to remove the metal out of your drinking water. It is very important that lead is removed from the water that you drink because it could be toxic when ingested. Lead could commonly get into your drinking water by seeping into your water supply when it passes through the old plumbing pipelines or the solder that is used for them to join together.

If your major source of water is a well, health authorities recommend that you will need to have the water tested for at least once a year for any lead of other kinds of contaminants.

They Remove Chlorine

Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17. The second-lightest of the halogens, it appears between fluorine and bromine in the periodic table and its properties are mostly intermediate between them.

Chlorine readily combines with chemicals dissolved in water, microorganisms, small animals, plant material, tastes, odors, and colors. These components “use up” chlorine and comprise the chlorine demand of the treatment system. It is important to add sufficient chlorine to the water to meet the chlorine demand and provide residual disinfection.

The chlorine that does not combine with other components in the water is free (residual) chlorine, and the breakpoint is the point at which free chlorine is available for continuous disinfection. An ideal system supplies free chlorine at a concentration of 0.3-0.5 mg/l. Simple test kits, most commonly the DPD colorimetric test kit (so called because diethyl phenylene diamine produces the color reaction), are available for testing breakpoint and chlorine residual in private systems. The kit must test free chlorine, not total chlorine.

Most of the water utility companies choose to use chlorine as a medium of cleaning tap water because it’s easy to use, an inexpensive choice and it is actually very effective in killing off bacteria that is found in the water. Chlorine can also be very effective in eliminating viruses in the water.

Although chlorine is actually a good and an effective disinfectant, it can make your drinking water smell and taste not good, your water could be very unpleasant. The chlorine could also react with other metals that can be found in the water, therefore, forming a hazardous compound.

Many cities all over the world make use of chlorine to clean their water supply, although this process is actually very important to make sure that we have a clean drinking water that is free from microorganisms that could badly affect our health, chlorine is basically bleach and it also carries a lot of health risks with it, it even puts you at a higher risk of developing rectal and bladder cancer amongst the many complications.

They Remove Pathogens

In biology, a pathogen in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s. Typically the term is used to describe an infectious agent such as a virus, bacterium, protozoa, prion, a fungus, or other micro-organism.

Because all of the pathogens that can come through public water supplies, often in small amounts that can grow into large colonies when in the right conditions, all water must be effectively treated in order to remove them. In addition to treating the water itself, managers of water supplies must also keep their infrastructure clean and free of biofilms, groupings of microorganisms that have adhered to one another and/or a surface. These biofilms grow on any surface that water touches and harbor any and all microbes that that become part of the community. Biofilms, as a microbial community, work together to protect themselves from disinfection, so any presence of biofilm presents a danger.

There are several substrates including pathways where the pathogens can invade a host. The principal pathways have different episodic time frames, but soil contamination has the longest or most persistent potential for harboring a pathogen. Diseases caused by organisms in humans are known as pathogenic diseases.

You need to keep parasites and bacteria out of your drinking water because they could be a grave threat to you and your family’s health.

Cryptosporidium, and what even made this parasite dangerous is because it is resistant to chlorine, so it really needs to be filtered out using a mechanical filter. A lot of pathogens could be omitted from your water by passing it through an ultra, a micro or a nano filter.

Giardia intestinalis is a microscopic parasite, this organism can survive and thrive in an environment for a long time, it could take up to several months. This parasite causes Giardiasis which is a kind of an illness which causes diarrhea that could last for six weeks. The microscopic parasite that causes that kind of illness, along with other of its kinds, can be ingested from the water that was contaminated with human or animal feces.

They Remove Fluoride

Fluoride, is an inorganic, monatomic anion of fluorine with the chemical formula F− . Fluoride is the simplest anion of fluorine.

Fluorides are chemical compounds that help prevent tooth decay. They are found in nature – in rocks and soil, in fresh water and in ocean water. They are also found in some types of food.

Yes, the Black Berkey Purification Elements can initially reduce Fluoride to greater than 99.9%.

However, the efficiency of removing Fluoride begins to lose after a few hundred gallons. In order to reduce fluoride effectively, you will still need to use additional post filters that work in conjunction with the Black Berkey Filters in your system, which is called the Berkey PF-2 Elements.  A set of Berkey PF-2 elements can remove Fluoride for up to 1,000 gallons.

The Berkey PF2 Fluoride Water Filter has the ability to be augmented to the Black Berkey Water Elements to eliminate impurities like arsenic, MTBE, fluoride and other heavy metals. It will remove any types of inorganic fluoride salts. All fluoride salts are soluble in water. So it does not matter what fluoride salts that are in the water, fluoride is present as an anion where the media will absorb fluoride ions in water.

Decades of research have shown that adding fluoride to water (fluoridation) helps prevent tooth decay. In some communities, natural levels of fluoride in the water supply match the optimal level to prevent tooth decay. In many others, the level of fluoride is too low and has to be added to the water supply. In Canada, the optimal range for fluoride in drinking water suggested by Health Canada is 0.7 milligrams per liter (mg/L)
Fluoride is added to most toothpastes, soil fertilizers and even water systems that had caused an alarm worldwide. Anything in excess is not beneficial. This act makes users prone to over consumption of the mineral that can cause serious health damage.

We only need a small amount of the mineral fluoride.  Excessive amount of it can be toxic to our health. Irrefutable evidence shows that high fluoride consumption is directly associated to gastrointestinal problems, low fertility, thyroid and endocrine related ailments and even cancer. 

Test Results for the Black Berkey Water Filters from Independent Laboratories

Here we have test results for “Black Berkey Elements”, “Organic Testing Results”, “Perfluorinated Chemicals Reduction Test Report” and “Sport Berkey Filter Elements”.

– Envirotek Lab Test

2014 Lab Test Results from Envirotek Laboratories Inc., New Jersey


– LA County Lab Test (Inorganic Test)

Latest test results by the Environmental Toxicology Laboratory of Los Angeles.


– LA County Lab Test (Organic Test )

Latest test results by the Environmental Toxicology Laboratory of Los Angeles.


– Envirotek Lab Test

Lead Reduction Test Report from Envirotek Laboratories Inc., New Jersey

 

– Envirotek Lab Test

Perfluorinated Reduction Test Report from Envirotek Laboratories Inc., New Jersey

– Envirotek Lab Test

Gross Alpha Reduction Test Report from Envirotek Laboratories Inc., New Jersey


– ASI Lab Test

Microbiological Challenge Study by Analytical Services Inc. (ASI).


– Uranium Reduction Test Report

Black Berkey Water Filters Uranium Removal 2016 Test Report from Envirotek Laboratories Inc., New Jersey

 

– Envirotek Lab Test

Gross Beta Reduction Test Report from Envirotek Laboratories Inc., New Jersey

 

– Envirotek Lab Test

Uranium Reduction Test Report from Envirotek Laboratories Inc., New Jersey

Test Results of The Berkey Water Filter Systems

Envirotek Laboratories, Inc: New Jersey

The results confirm that Berkey Water Filter can remove chloramines, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, heavy metals and other bad element in the water.

    • Bisphenol- A which is a common endocrine disruptor found in PET plastic bottles were removed to greater than 99.9% when bottled water was poured out into the Berkey.
    • Chloramine – which is now the substitute of most refilling station to chlorine for water disinfection was also removed to greater than 99.9%.
    • Pharmaceuticals – are now a big concern in the water supply that affects the health of people, but after the testing Berkey removed greater than 99.5% of it in the water.
    • Petroleum Contaminants – (Gasoline, Diesel, Crude Oil, Kerosene, Mineral Spirits, Refined Oil) were removed to greater than 99.9%. Not only oil spills affect the water, also the Pesticides. The result after the testing was, these pesticides were also removed to greater than 99.9%. Moreover, due to oil spills that happened around the world, our water has become contaminated with petroleum.
    • Heavy Metals – were removed to greater than 99.1% after it was poured into the Berkey.
    • Coliform and e-Coli- were also removed to over 99.9% after the testing.

Environmental Toxicology Laboratory, LA

Another laboratory conduced series of tests for Berkey Water Filter. Result shows that the filters are setting a new standard for gravity fed water filtration and purification system.

Additional new potential contaminates that show significant reduction of 95% or greater in Nitrites, MBAs or Methylene Blue Active Substances, and Arsenic.

It is very remarkable that in all testing conducted on Berkey Water Filters, reduction occurred in excess of the reporting limit for each test which means that reduction levels were achieved in every case. Not only that it was achieved, it exceeds the testing limitation of the laboratory.

Analytical Services, Inc. (ASI)

A microbiological testing, research and consulting also tested Berkey Water Filters. The objective of the testing for Berkey Water Filter was to establish preliminary data regarding the efficacy of viral removal or inactivation from clean water.

After a series of testing, Berkey Water Filter showed a great result that again exceeded the expectation of the laboratory. The results of the leaching control samples suggest that no active antimicrobial agent is leaching into the treated water. Under the test conditions, the Berkey Water Filter exceeded the minimum log reduction requirements specified for all three types of microorganisms.

The three laboratories that tested the effectiveness of Berkey Water Filter showed significant results to prove that Berkey Water Filters can purify water, not just filtering water.

The results were purely positive and has exceeded the expectations of each laboratory.

Berkey Earth Test Results

Berkey Earth Bacteria Testing

Berkey Earth Microbiological Testing

Berkey Earth Chemical Reduction Testing

Beneficial Minerals Information

The technology utilized in the Black Berkey™ purification elements is designed not to remove ionic minerals from the water. The elements are however, designed to remove sedimentary minerals. Additionally, in order to reduce heavy metals, there are several types of media used in the proprietary formulation that have a specific affinity for heavy metals. The best part is that the media used in the Black Berkey™ elements is designed to not remove beneficial minerals. Because the media formulation does not have an affinity for beneficial minerals such as calcium and magnesium, these minerals should pass right on through the elements.

*Beneficial minerals that are recommended for the human body are typically categorized into two different groups:
– Major Minerals : Minerals that are recommended in our diet at recommended amounts greater than 100mg/day.
– Trace Minerals: Minerals that are recommended in our diet at recommended amounts less than 100mg/day.

Major Minerals BENEFICIAL MINERALS RESEARCH
Calcium Strong bones & muscles, cardiovascular health, tooth & bone formation
Chloride Helps create cells
Magnesium Heart Regulation, relaxes muscles
Phosphorus Tooth & bone formation
Potassium Sends oxygen to the brain, blood pressure, nerve & muscle function
Sodium Nerve & muscle function and maintains the proper balance of water in the body
Sulfur Helps stabilizes protein structures-hair, skin, nails
Trace Minerals BENEFICIAL MINERALS RESEARCH
Chromium Glucose function – makes sure every cell gets energy as & when needed
Cobalt Supports red blood cell production and the formation of myelin nerve coverings.
Copper Metabolic process, blood cell production; helps create hemoglobin-to carry O2 in blood.
Fluoride Increases the structural stability of teeth and bones
Iodine Assists thyroid hormone production, helps make thyroid hormones
Iron Blood production, disease resistance, production of amino acids, natural muscle building & maintaining healthy red blood cells
Manganese Nervous System function, bone strength, enzyme production & activation
Molybdenum Enzyme production & activation
Selenium Immune function; protects cells from damage
Silica Necessary for the formation of collagen for bones and connective tissue
Zinc Prostate, food processing, cellular and immune function

* NOTE : Beneficial Mineral Information based upon Internet and other informational research and believed to be accurate at time of publication. Ongoing research and developments can change current conventional wisdom and recommendations regarding different beneficial minerals. When in doubt, it is always a good idea to consult your local health practitioner.
(Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waterborne_diseases)

Waterborne Diseases – are caused by pathogenic microorganisms that most commonly are transmitted in contaminated fresh water. Infection commonly results during bathing, washing, drinking, in the preparation of food, or the consumption of food that is infected. Various forms of waterborne diarrheal disease probably are the most prominent examples, and affect mainly children in developing countries; according to the World Health Organization, such diseases account for an estimated 3.6% of the total DALY global burden of disease, and cause about 1.5 million human deaths annually. The World Health Organization estimates that 58% of that burden, or 842,000 deaths per year, is attributable to unsafe water supply, sanitation, hygiene and cleanliness.

Protozoan

Disease and Transmission

Microbial Agent

Sources of Agent in Water Supply

General Symptoms

Amoebiasis(hand-to-mouth) Protozoan (Entamoeba histolytica) (Cyst-like appearance) Sewagenon-treated drinking waterflies in water supply Abdominal discomfort, fatigue, weight loss, diarrheabloatingfever
Cryptosporidiosis(oral) Protozoan (Cryptosporidium parvum) Collects on water filters and membranes that cannot be disinfectedanimal manure, seasonal runoff of water. Flu-like symptoms, watery diarrhea, loss of appetite, substantial loss of weight, bloating, increased gas, nausea
Cyclosporiasis Protozoan parasite (Cyclospora cayetanensis) Sewagenon-treated drinking water cramps, nausea, vomiting, muscle aches, fever, and fatigue
Giardiasis (fecal-oral) (hand-to-mouth) Protozoan (Giardia lamblia) Most common intestinal parasite Untreated water, poor disinfection, pipe breaks, leaks, groundwater contamination, campgrounds where humans and wildlife use same source of water. Beavers and muskrats create ponds that act as reservoirs for Giardia. Diarrhea, abdominal discomfort, bloating, and flatulence
Microsporidiosis Protozoan phylum (Microsporidia), but closely related to fungi Encephalitozoon intestinalis has been detected in groundwater, the origin of drinking water [6] Diarrhea and wasting in immunocompromised individuals.

Bacterial

Disease and Transmission

Microbial Agent

Sources of Agent in Water Supply

General Symptoms

Botulism Clostridium botulinum Bacteria can enter an open wound from contaminated water sources. Can enter the gastrointestinal tract through consumption of contaminated drinking water or (more commonly) food Dry mouth, blurred and/or double vision, difficulty swallowing, muscle weakness, difficulty breathing, slurred speech, vomiting and sometimes diarrhea. Death is usually caused by respiratory failure.
Campylobacteriosis Most commonly caused by Campylobacter jejuni Drinking water contaminated with feces Produces dysentery like symptoms along with a high fever. Usually lasts 2–10 days.
Cholera Spread by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae Drinking water contaminated with the bacterium In severe forms it is known to be one of the most rapidly fatal illnesses known. Symptoms include very watery diarrhea, nauseacrampsnosebleed, rapid pulse, vomiting, and hypovolemic shock (in severe cases), at which point death can occur in 12–18 hours.
E. coli Infection Certain strains of Escherichia coli (commonly E. coli) Water contaminated with the bacteria Mostly diarrhea. Can cause death in immunocompromised individuals, the very young, and the elderly due to dehydration from prolonged illness.
M. marinuminfection Mycobacterium marinum Naturally occurs in water, most cases from exposure in swimming pools or more frequently aquariums; rare infection since it mostly infects immunocompromisedindividuals Symptoms include lesions typically located on the elbows, knees, and feet (from swimming pools) or lesions on the hands (aquariums). Lesions may be painless or painful.
Dysentery Caused by a number of species in the genera Shigella and Salmonellawith the most common being Shigella dysenteriae Water contaminated with the bacterium Frequent passage of feces with blood and/or mucus and in some cases vomiting of blood.
Legionellosis (two distinct forms: Legionnaires’ disease and Pontiac fever) Caused by bacteria belonging to genus Legionella (90% of cases caused by Legionella pneumophila) Contaminated water: the organism thrives in warm aquatic environments. Pontiac fever produces milder symptoms resembling acute influenza without pneumonia. Legionnaires’ disease has severe symptoms such as feverchills, pneumonia (with cough that sometimes produces sputum), ataxiaanorexia, muscle aches, malaise and occasionally diarrhea and vomiting
Leptospirosis Caused by bacterium of genus Leptospira Water contaminated by the animal urine carrying the bacteria Begins with flu-like symptoms then resolves. The second phase then occurs involving meningitisliver damage (causes jaundice), and renal failure
Otitis Externa(swimmer’s ear) Caused by a number of bacterial and fungalspecies. Swimming in water contaminated by the responsible pathogens Ear canal swells, causing pain and tenderness to the touch
Salmonellosis Caused by many bacteria of genus Salmonella Drinking water contaminated with the bacteria. More common as a food borne illness. Symptoms include diarrheafever, vomiting, and abdominal cramps
Typhoid fever Salmonella typhi Ingestion of water contaminated with fecesof an infected person Characterized by sustained fever up to 40 °C (104 °F), profuse sweating; diarrhea may occur. Symptoms progress to delirium, and the spleen and liver enlarge if untreated. In this case it can last up to four weeks and cause death. Some people with typhoid fever develop a rash called “rose spots”, small red spots on the abdomen and chest.
Vibrio Illness Vibrio vulnificusVibrio alginolyticus, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus Can enter wounds from contaminated water. Also acquired by drinking contaminated water or eating undercooked oysters. Symptoms include abdominal tenderness, agitation, bloody stools, chills, confusion, difficulty paying attention (attention deficit), delirium, fluctuating mood, hallucination, nosebleeds, severe fatigue, slow, sluggish, lethargic feeling, weakness.

Viral

Disease and Transmission

Viral Agent

Sources of Agent in Water Supply

General Symptoms

SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) Coronavirus Manifests itself in improperly treated water Symptoms include fevermyalgialethargygastrointestinal symptomscough, and sore throat
Hepatitis A Hepatitis A virus (HAV) Can manifest itself in water (and food) Symptoms are only acute (no chronic stage to the virus) and include Fatigue, fever, abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, weight loss, itching, jaundice and depression.
Poliomyelitis(Polio) Poliovirus Enters water through the feces of infected individuals 90-95% of patients show no symptoms, 4-8% have minor symptoms (comparatively) with deliriumheadachefever, and occasional seizures, and spastic paralysis, 1% have symptoms of non-paralytic aseptic meningitis. The rest have serious symptoms resulting in paralysis or death
Polyomavirus infection Two of PolyomavirusJC virus and BK virus Very widespread, can manifest itself in water, ~80% of the population has antibodies to Polyomavirus BK virus produces a mild respiratory infection and can infect the kidneys of immunosuppressed transplantpatients. JC virus infects the respiratory system, kidneys or can cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in the brain (which is fatal).

Algal

Disease and Transmission

Microbial Agent

Sources of Agent in Water Supply

General Symptoms

Desmodesmus infection desmodesmus armatus Naturally occurs in water. Can enter open wounds. Similar to fungal infection

What Chemicals are in tap water?

The chemicals found in ordinary tap water are known to be very common. Public drinking analysis done by experts have uncovered that tap water contains over 2000 different types of toxic chemicals. This makes owning a water purification very important. The only healthy and safe way to drink ordinary tap water is to use a water purification.

Chemical Sources

Chemicals will enter into tap water from many different types of sources. Pollution is one way that chemicals have gotten into the tap water supplies. Other ways are when chemicals are added to the water by the public water systems. The most common of these chemicals is chlorine. Chlorine is the most common of the types of chemicals currently being used to treat public water supplies. It is used to remove and to kill any bacteria which could be living in the water. This type of treatment prevents people from getting ill from drinking unsanitary water.

Health Risks From Chemicals

Even though chemicals are added to tap water to purify it for drinking and cooking in homes, there are still health risks. Adding chlorine to water is actually adding a poison to the water we drink. Over time, chlorine taken in small doses will increase the risk of cancer, heart disease and other health conditions. Most all public drinking water systems use chlorine to purify water.
Other chemicals which are found in drinking water are equally as deadly. Chemicals, such as pesticides and fertilizers in drinking water have been linked to birth defects. Yet, chemicals have been used for years to purify drinking water by killing the parasites that live in it. However, experts say that these parasites are becoming immune to the chemicals and are living after purification treatments. These types of parasites will cause serious health problems in your digestive system.

How Dangerous Is Tap Water?

Is tap water really that bad for us to drink? The government regulates the processing of drink water through the EPA and FDA. They are aware that dangerous chemicals may still remain in the drinking water. While there are standards in place for the maximum amount of contaminants allowed in water, none of these levels are at zero. Meaning, that there are dangerous toxins in the water which we drinking from the tap. Large increases in cancers and other diseases have been reported in places where there has been poor processing of water purification systems.

Some Types of Chemicals in Drinking Water

This is a brief list of the types of toxins in drinking water and what effects they can have on your health.
1. Chlorine – Can cause bladder and rectal cancers, and also asthma. Recently, experts have linked chlorine to breast cancer.
2. Lead – Lead enters tap water through corroded pipes. Lead in drinking water is harmful for pregnant mothers and children. Lead poisoning has been proven to cause learning disorders and severe developmental delays.
3. Giardia and Cryptosporidium – These types of protozoa are responsible for widespread and severe outbreaks of gastro-intestinal diseases. They will make their way in the water system whenever here has been a sanitation breakdown.

7 Science-Based Health Benefits of Drinking Enough Water

Our bodies are around 60% water, give or take.
It is commonly recommended to drink eight 8-ounce glasses of water per day (the 8 x 8 rule).
Although there is little science behind this specific rule, staying hydrated is important.
Here are 7 evidence-based health benefits of drinking plenty of water.

1. Water Helps to Maximize Physical Performance

If we do not stay hydrated, physical performance can suffer.
This is particularly important during intense exercise or high heat.
Dehydration can have a noticeable effect if you lose as little as 2% of your body’s water content. However, it is not uncommon for athletes to lose up to 6-10% of their water weight via sweat.
This can lead to altered body temperature control, reduced motivation, increased fatigue and make exercise feel much more difficult, both physically and mentally.
Optimal hydration has been shown to prevent this from happening, and may even reduce the oxidative stress that occurs during high intensity exercise. This is not surprising when you consider that muscle is about 80% water.
So, if you exercise intensely and tend to sweat, then staying hydrated can help you perform at your absolute best.
BOTTOM LINE: Losing as little as 2% of your body’s water content can significantly impair physical performance.

2. Hydration Has a Major Effect on Energy Levels and Brain Function

Your brain is strongly influenced by hydration status.
Studies show that even mild dehydration (1-3% of body weight) can impair many aspects of brain function.
In a study of young women, fluid loss of 1.36% after exercise impaired both mood and concentration, and increased the frequency of headaches.

Another similar study, this time in young men, showed that fluid loss of 1.59% was detrimental to working memory and increased feelings of anxiety and fatigue.
A 1-3% fluid loss equals about 1.5-4.5 lbs (0.5-2 kg) of body weight loss for a 150 lbs (68 kg) person. This can easily occur through normal daily activities, let alone during exercise or high heat.
Many other studies, ranging from children to the elderly, have shown that mild dehydration can impair mood, memory and brain performance.
BOTTOM LINE: Mild dehydration (fluid loss of 1-3%) can impair energy levels and mood, and lead to major reductions in memory and brain performance.

3. Drinking Water May Help to Prevent and Treat Headaches

Dehydration can trigger headaches and migraines in some individuals.
Several studies have shown that water can relieve headaches in those who are dehydrated.
However, this appears to depend on the type of headache.
One study of 18 people found that water had no effect on the frequency of headaches, but did reduce the intensity and duration somewhat.
BOTTOM LINE: Drinking water can sometimes help relieve headache symptoms, especially in people who are dehydrated.

4. Drinking More Water May Help Relieve Constipation

Constipation is a common problem, characterized by infrequent bowel movements and difficulty passing stool.
Increasing fluid intake is often recommended as a part of the treatment protocol, and there is some evidence to back this up.

Low water consumption appears to be a risk factor for constipation in both young and elderly individuals.
Carbonated water shows particularly promising results for constipation relief, although the reason is not entirely understood.
BOTTOM LINE: Drinking plenty of water can help prevent and relieve constipation, especially in people who generally do not drink enough water.

5. Drinking Water May Help Treat Kidney Stones

Urinary stones are painful clumps of mineral crystal that form in the urinary system.
The most common form is kidney stones, which form in the kidneys.
There is limited evidence that water intake can help prevent recurrence in people who have previously gotten kidney stones.
Higher fluid intake increases the volume of urine passing through the kidneys, which dilutes the concentration of minerals, so they are less likely to crystallize and form clumps.
Water may also help prevent the initial formation of stones, but studies are required to confirm this.
BOTTOM LINE: Increased water intake appears to decrease the risk of kidney stone formation. More research is needed in this area.

6. Water Helps Prevent Hangovers

A hangover refers to the unpleasant symptoms experienced after drinking alcohol.
Alcohol is a diuretic, so it makes you lose more water than you take in. This can lead to dehydration.
Although dehydration is not the main cause of hangovers, it can cause symptoms like thirst, fatigue, headache and dry mouth.
A good way to reduce hangovers is to drink a glass of water between drinks, and to have at least one big glass of water before going to bed.
BOTTOM LINE: Hangovers are partly caused by dehydration, and drinking water can help reduce some of the main symptoms of hangovers.

7. Drinking More Water Can Help With Weight Loss

Drinking plenty of water can help you lose weight.
This is due to the fact that water can increase satiety and boost your metabolic rate.
In two studies, drinking half a liter (17 ounces) of water was shown to increase metabolism by 24-30% for up to 1.5 hours.
This means that drinking 2 liters of water every day can increase your total energy expenditure by up to 96 calories per day.
The timing is important too, and drinking water half an hour before meals is the most effective. It can make you feel more full, so that you eat fewer calories.
In one study, dieters who drank half a liter of water before meals lost 44% more weight, over a period of 12 weeks.
It is actually best to drink water cold, because then the body will use additional energy (calories) to heat the water to body temperature.

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